FOR any government, as for an intelligently managed business, a budget plan is a necessity. Only the United States among great civilized nations managed for many years to get along without one. Only our great and rapidly growing national wealth made it possible for us to pursue such an inherently extragavant course, with complete lack of executive control over new projects for spending money.
IN THE midst of the preparations to send this issue of AVIATION to press, there occurs an anniversary of one of the two or three greatest events in the history of air transport. Exactly twenty years ago, on Sept. 23, 1911, Earle L. Ovington flew his monoplane from Nassau Boulevard to Mineola on Long Island, a distance of five miles, and carried a sack of mail with which he bombed the postmaster who was waiting at the far end of the route to receive it.
ALMOST all of the innumerable panaceas for depression that have been launched in the past year have had the common thought that it is better to subsidize work than to subsidize idleness, and that it is both socially and economically sounder to provide men with jobs than to pay them for not having them.
THE President’s recent expression of indignation because the noise of three aircraft disturbed the ceremonies at the Harding Memorial made the front page in newspapers throughout the country. The executive wrath strikes at the heart of one of aviation’s most vital problems.
THOUGH the National Air Races were flown over Cleveland, the opening contest was flagged off from Santa Monica, Cal., whence 52 fliers started off on a handicap sweepstake air derby to the eastern airport where the racing proper was to be held.
The Schneider Trophy was secured permanently for Great Britain whose high speed flyers had already won it twice in succession, by Lieut. J. N. Boothman who flew a Supermarine S.6B seaplane seven times over the 31-mile course at Calshot at an average speed of 340.08 m.p.h., more than 11 m.p.h. faster than the speed which the late Lieut.
Although considerably embarrassed by the German financial crisis, the Aero Club von Deutschland refused to allow postponement of the Deutschlandflug, or German air tour. Technical tests for take-off and landing, folding and portability, slow flying, fuel-consumption and load-carrying were held in advance of the two-day tour which was flown from Staaken to Munich (725 m.), with four intermediate landings, on the first day, and via Vienna and Breslau, back to Berlin on the second, a total distance of 1,358 miles.
<p>Landing in New York harbor on Aug. 27, the Dornier Do.X completed a project begun the fourth of last November, when it left Friedrichshafen for Amsterdam and Calshot, England, the first lap of a flight to the United States. A mysterious wing fire occurring in Lisbon and the combination of revolution and tropical humidity and lack of wind each accounted for months of delay, before the hop from the Cape Verde Island to Brazil was made, early in June.</p>
So long as Capt. Frank Hawks and James Hall continue to fly, inter-city records continue to fall. En route to South Dakota to receive honors from the Sioux Indians Captain Hawks clipped six minutes from the existing New York-Chicago record, making the trip in 4 hours 6 min. from Roosevelt Field.
Contracts for new Air Corps equipment, 71 planes and 92 engines, were recently approved by the Assistant Secretary of War, at a total expenditure of $2,571,757.77. The Douglas Aircraft Company is to supply six observation planes, distinct from previous models in that they are high-wing monoplanes instead of biplanes each costing about $21,000, and eight amphibions with spare parts and equipment, similar to the commercial product announced at last April’s Detroit Show, at a unit cost just under $20,000, the total for fourteen planes with spares being $358,784.
Two new British long-range flying boats, a Short Singapore II powered with four Rolls-Royce Kestrel engines of 480 hp. each, making them the fastest flying boats in the world, and a Saunders-Roe A7 with three Bristol Jupiter 500 hp. engines, are making a test flight from England over the Mediterranean and the Red Sea, to determine which is better fitted for coastal reconnaissance and long distance sea patrol with the Royal Air Force.
Violations of the traffic regulation against low flying are frequent among the offenses dealt with by the Aeronautics Branch, 44 having occurred during the second quarter of 1931. They were exceeded only by violations of the acrobatics provisions of which 65 were considered, almost 21 per cent of all the violations reported during the period.
New regulations drafted by the Mexican Ministry of Communication and Public Works to be presented to the national legislature at an early date greatly strengthen and extend its control over civilian and commercial aviation. All aircraft with a capacity of more than ten passengers must hereafter carry a co-pilot.
The U.S.S. Akron was flown successfully on its maiden flight Sept. 24 for three hours and 45 minutes over a course which included Cleveland and points in eastern Ohio. The ship carried 113 individuals, a recrod for an airship, about half of whom comprised the crew. Various accessories are being prepared for the ship.
Suggestions made by Prof. Auguste Piccard after his ascent into the stratosphere are beginning to materialize, the first evidence being a machine completed by the Farman company as part of a program for the development of high altitude flying sponsored by the French government.
Reduced operations at the plants of the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company its hitherto most productive subsidiary, is responsible for the unusually small increase in the income of the United Aircraft & Transport Corporation for the second quarter of the year over that of the first three months.
The material immediately following, together with references to legal and legislative matters elsewhere in the news pages, is based largely upon the Aviation Law Service prepared by the Commerce Clearing House, Inc. AVIATION is licensed to make use of this service, and is able to give its readers the benefits of the work of an organization specially trained and equipped to insure the complete collection of pertinent material on current legal developments.
The Committee of Aeronautics of the American Bar Association has drafted a new uniform aeronautical code extensively revising the form drafted in 1922, to be submitted to all state legislatures for their approval. Whereas the original code recognized the ownership of air space by the owner of the surface beneath, in the revision flight of aircraft is judged a public right in all “navigable air space,” defined as air space above minimum safe altitudes of flight prescribed by regulation.
Though investigation of the Army air crash at Newington, Conn., on July 20, in which two men were killed are being made from three different sources, it is upon the findings of one that the future of Commissioner of Aeronautics, Charles L. Morris and his deputy, Jack Lenox, depend.
Reports from a number of leading airlines indicate that passenger traffic volume continued high 'during July. United Air Lines carried 6,215 persons in that month as compared with 4,644 in June. Transcontinental & Western Air carried 867 more passengers in July than in June.
Curtiss-Wright Flying Service opened on Labor Day a ferry service linking Newark, Floyd Bennett Field and Glenn Curtiss Airport. A Ford is flown from Newark on the even hour, departing from Floyd Bennett at approximately 20 min. past the hour and from Glenn Curtiss for Newark at about 40 min. past the hour.
Pan American-Grace has succeeded at last in obtaining permission from Chile to carry passengers as well as mail over its route into Santiago from Peru. Passengers may now fly all the way from Miami to Santiago by Pan American instead of changing to a Chilean National Airways plane at Arica.
American Airways and Century Airlines have been granted certificates of convenience and necessity for operating between Chicago and St. Louis. These petitions were granted by the Illinois Commerce Commission following hearings in May during which the Chicago & Alton Railroad objected strenously to a grant on the ground that airline service is dangerous and not dependable.
Imperial Airways nas opened in the heart of London a new Airway Terminus Building which serves as executive headquarters of the company and as city passenger station. Buses run direct from there to the Croydon Airport. The company now hopes to open the Mwanza-Cape Town section of its African service in December, depending upon the delivery of the Handley Page 42 (Hannibal) type which will relieve De Havilland Hercules machines, now on the Cairo-Karachi section, for the new African section of 2,960 miles.
The grumblings about the Post Office Department’s methods and terms in granting air mail contracts has centered recently around criticisms advanced by Ludington Line, one of the strongest of the independent operators claiming they have been slighted.
<p>Impressive demonstrations of ship-toshore air mail deliveries were made in. August by the Bremen’s plane and in September by the Europa’s machine.. The Bremen plane left the ship when it was 700 miles from Boston on Aug. 1& and landed in Boston harbor at 6 that afternoon.</p>
Amplification of the federal airways system during the present fiscal year will include installation of 30 radio range beacons and completion of fifteen beacons now under construction. Fifty-one are in operation already. To the 48 radio communication stations now in operation there will be added eleven now under construction and ten others not yet started.
The Department of Commerce has issued a new bulletin, designated as Aeronautics Bulletin No. 2 on the subject of design and construction of airports. It is compendium of the Airport Section’s data on trends in airport matters with a few prophecies thrown in.
Reed G. Landis, war ace and prominent in many phases of aeronautics, and Prof. Fred D. Fagg, Jr., of Northwestern University, who has done much work in the development of air law, are among those who have been appointed members of the Illinois State Aeronautics Commission.
COMPARISON of airplane production figures for the first half of 1931 released recently by the Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Commerce with those for the same period last year show surprisingly little change. The current production totaled 1,606 planes, of which 1,069 were for civil use while in 1930 the figures were 1,684 and 1,177, from which the decreases have been 5 and 9 per cent.
The contesting planes at Cleveland exhibited refinement in design rather than originality
AS WE look back over the designs introduced in the last two years of national air racing, there is a definite decrease in originality, and engineers seem satisfied with existing types and contented to continue expending their efforts toward the refinement of present-day machines.
THE management of the National Air Races are in the fortunate position of having a problem which changes but little from year to year. They have been gradually accumulating experience ever since 1920, and they can take several months to think over the successes and failures of each meet before the problems of the next are full upon them.
A duty and an opportunity that seems to have been overlooked by the several states of this country. It is to contribute to the development of intrastate private and transport operation of aircraft in anticipation of the future tax revenue to be derived from these sources.
Operators and designers are beginning to realize that airline profits or losses may be materially influenced in the earliest stages of airplane design. Planes must not only be able to fly, but to fly profitably under a given set of conditions.
AN inverted four-cylinder, in-line, air-cooled engine for light airplanes has been designed and built by Mr. Hellmuth Hirth. one of the oldest pilots in Germany. The engine which is rated at 65 hp. at 2,100 r.p.m., is similar in appearance to wellknown British and American engines of the same type, but involves a number of interesting and novel features.
The present depression is forcing executives in all branches of business to a realization of the need for closer contact in their fields of activity. This can be accomplished most efficiently by airplane. In the accompanying article the author discusses this and other phases of the business market and analyzes some three hundred sales of airplanes made to business men.
Revision of load factors and suppression of vibrations claim attention
THE Cleveland sessions of the Society of Automotive Engineers provided for only two papers on other than power plant subjects. Those two, however, proved to be so exhaustive and so packed with illustrations and demanded such careful presentation that even though the meeting continued until midnight there was time for only a small part of the discussion that members of the audience wished to contribute.
THE practice of catapulting airplanes of moderate size from the decks of ships has now become commonplace. Recently the Royal Air Force conducted an experiment in which a 7-ton Vickers Virginia bomber was successfully catapulted from the ground.
FOLLOWING almost immediately on the close of the World War, certain European nations, foreseeing the possibilities which aerial transport offered in binding more closely together the far-flung units of their colonial empires, encouraged the establishment of experimental airlines between certain strategic points, lending their assistance to private enterprise in the form of substantial subsidies.
A brief but comprehensive description of the U.S.S. Akron’s design and construction
LESS than one year after the greatest catastrophe in lighter-than-air history—the lamentable failure of the English R.101— appears a new prophet in the shape of the ZRS-4, better known as the U.S.S. Akron. This airship not only is the latest exponent of the type, but because it is larger than any yet launched, represents pioneering in many aspects of construction and operation.
IN these days when the ubiquitous auto mobile servicing station spreads like a rash across the face of the country, the man who is contemplating a tour by air wonders what similar facilities are available to him in the event he has mechanical difficulty with his machine.
ANEW radial air-cooled airplane engine has recently been completed and tested by the Pratt & Whitney Aircraft Company, of East Hartford, Conn. Although based primarily on the Series B Hornet engine which was first announced in 1929, the new engine, the B-2, incorporates several modifications, notably a 3 :2 propeller drive reduction, higher compression ratio, and improvements in the supercharger drive and oil temperature regulating system.
THE two 1931 models of the wellknown Great Lakes Sport Trainer follow very closely the lines laid down for these machines in previous years. The chief improvement in external appearance is around the nose where careful attention to engine mounting and cowling has resulted in better lines.
ANEW light monoplane has been designed and recently test flown by Mr. H. G. Nicholson, Jr., of Tonawanda, N. Y. The machine is a high wing, single-place, semi-cantilever monoplane powered with a 45-hp. Szekely engine. It is intended that later models will be fitted with seats for two persons, as perliminary test flights have indicated that an additional 170-lb. load may be carried safely in the single-seat experimental machine.
ANEW model of the well-known Skyrocket has recently been announced by the Bellanca Aircraft Corporation, of New Castle, Del. The basic design is similar to that of the previous models first introduced in 1930, but increased speed has been obtained by the addition of extra features and refinement of detail.
DURING the period Aug. 15 to Sept. 5 the Aeronautics Branch of the Department of Commerce issued the following Group I approved type certificates : 443, American Pilgrim 100A (Hornet B 575 hp.) ; 445, Cycloplane Cl (Cyclomotor A2-25 22 hp.) ; 446, Pitcairn Autogiro PCA-3 (Wasp Junior 300 hp.) ; 447, Aeronautical, Aeronca Cl (Aeronca El 13 36 hp.) ; 448, Aeronautical, Aeronca C2N (Aeronca El 13).
ASIMPLE and effective arrangement for the inspection and adjustment of tail surface controls is incorporated in the Messerschmitt monoplane flown in the German light plane tour for 1931. The after-portion of the turtle deck just forward of the fin is covered with a pair of metal covers, each hinged along the upper longerons, and meeting on the center line of the fuselage.
BEFORE folding back the wings of the Avro Avian biplane for storage it is necessary to provide some means of preserving the alignment of the upper and the lower wings when the front spar hinges are detached from the center section and the fuselage.
THE top speed of the new Curtiss Condors recently delivered to Eastern Air Transport, Inc., has been improved by 12 to 15 m.p.h. as compared with the older models by redesigning the nacelles housing the two Conqueror engines. When this machine was adapted for transport use from a design intended as a military bomber, the engine nacelles were but slightly modified, although each originally had provision for a machine gunner’s cockpit in the tail.
TO CUT down the resistance of the undercarriage on the high speed Vega transport, recently developed for the United States Army, the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation has designed an interesting single strut landing gear. Each wheel is carried on a single streamlined strut braced to the fuselage with four sets of streamlined tie rods.
AN unusual airplane dusting operation recently conducted in the state of Washington has brought excellent results in the attempts to eradicate the “hemlock looper,” a destructive insect pest. Northwest Air Service, Inc., Seattle, was commissioned by the Washington timber interests in May to make an aerial map of the infested area.
THE Aerial Survey division of Canadian Airways completed last winter a set of contour mosaic and oblique photographs and other data for use in engineering a new construction project of Algoma District Power Company at the sparsely settled mouth of the Montreal River on Lake Superior.
<p>TWO Buhl Bull Pups have been used during the past season by Midwest Airways, Milwaukee County Airport, in a successful fly-it-yourself service. One has been flown 300 hours and the other 200 hours at the rate of $0.10 per mile. On the basis of 76 m.p.h., these two planes have earned a total income of approximately $3,800 while the operating cost, figured at about $0.01 per mile, has totaled about $380.</p>
AN ADDITIONAL source of revenue has been developed by the San Francisco Bay Airdrome, Alameda, Cal., through the provision of individual garages for the use of airport employees or airline passengers. Six garages are now in operation. One garage is reserved at all times for the use of transients and air travellers.
THE New York Municipal Airport —Floyd Bennett Field—has borrowed a regulation traffic signal from from its police department for control of ground traffic on the port. This installation has the green, amber and rea lights on three faces, pointing out toward the main runway, which lies at right angles to the broad concrete taxiway along the hangar line, and in both directions along the taxi way.
THE Curtiss-Wright Airport at Valley Stream, L. L, is developing its non-professional business by a new plan of customer service. The management believes in the potentialities of the nonprofessional business and is taking aggressive steps to cultivate it.
Your recent editorial “The Patent Racket” appearing in the August issue of AVIATION strikes one as an appeal in a direction that will do a lot of good. It is a condition that should have improved long ago. The suggestion that national engineering societies could pass on the practical merits of ideas submissted would appear to offer an admirable basis for solution.
REMOVING old oil from airplane engine crankcases with little effort and without danger of spilling the drainage on hangar floors has been accomplished in a practical way in the Hexhanger servicing unit of the Transcontinental and Western Airways at Alhambra, Cal., by mounting an ordinary 40-gal. oil drum on a small dolly.
FOR minor adjustment of bearings or brakes on the landing gear of the 'Curtiss Kingbirds, used on the Southern Division of Eastern Air Transport, Inc., the side of the undercarriage in question is simply raised clear of the ground by means of a hydraulic jack.
AN EXCELLENT emergency crash kit has been developed by the Boeing Airplane Company, and is kept available in its hangar on Boeing Field, Seattle. The kit weighs about 60 lb. complete and is equipped with handles so that it may be easily carried by one or two men.
HANDLING of oil and grease is greatly expedited in the Seattle shops of United Air Lines by placing the storage tanks under air pressure so that lubricants may be drawn off at will by merely turning the proper air valve. Two 55-gal. oil tanks, and a grease tank holding 50 lb., are now installed.
FOR convenience in making accurate and rapid reading of the amount of fuel pumped into the tanks of the Stinson airplanes at the Washington shop of the Ludington Lines, a new Wayne gage has been added recently to the fuel pumping unit (AVIATION, June, 1931).
A new tensiometer designed to give direct reading in pounds of the tension on wires or cables has been announced by the Hills-McCanna Company of Chicago. The instrument is hooked on to the cable in any position, and the center bearing tightened to deflect the cable.
A machine designed to reduce the cost of forming metal aircraft parts by eliminating the necessity for a heavy investment in dies has been developed and put on the market by the Engineering & Research Corporation, 2014 Fifth St. N.E., Washington, D. C. The forming of the metal is accomplished in a manner similar to that which would be used in hand fabrication, but the hand hammer is replaced by a short brake which oscillates approximately 250 times per minute.
A portable sanding machine in which is incorporated a vacuum system for continuous collection of dust has been developed by the Porter-Cable-Hutchinson Corporation of Syracuse, N. Y. A small suction fan, driven directly by the sander motor, collects the dust as rapidly as it comes from the belt and delivers it to a bag similar to those used on the ordinary household vacuum CLEANER.-AVIATION, October, 1931.
A portable public address unit is now being marketed by the Operadio Manufacturing Company of St. Charles, 111. The unit is compactly assembled in a single carrying case, the front of which forms a baffle for the dynamic speaker. Space is provided for all accessories, including microphone and connecting cord. The unit operates on the usual 110-volt, 60-cycle lighting circuit. It is stated that as many as four additional loud speaker units may be operated from the AMPLIFIER.-AVIATION, October, 1931.
A steel cabinet especially designed for the storage of paint shop equipment has recently been announced by the Lyon Metal Products Company of Aurora, 111. The cabinet is 34 in. wide, 24 in. deep and 78 in. high and includes specially designed and reinforced shelving to store the complete individual equipment of a spray booth operator, including everything from 5-gal. cans to spray gun and masking paper.
<p>A new short-wave aircraft radio receiver has been placed on the market by Radio Laboratories, Inc., Los Angeles, Cal. The set is said to have a range of 1,500 miles when receiving from a 400 watt transmitting station. It weighs 6| lb. complete and measures 13^x8x4 in. overall.</p>
Elgin Aircraft Instrument Division. A new catalog has been received from Elgin (Aircraft Instrument Division) of Elgin, 111., covering their complete line of aviation instruments. There are included not only a general description, but also installation data and drawings for each instrument.
THE LIMITS OF COMPRESSION RATIO IN DIESEL ENGINES, by D. R. Pye; Aeronautical Research Committee R & M No. 1365. VERY extensive researches have been carried out in the past on the effect of compression ratios on the performance of gasoline engines.
TAKE OFF OF SEAPLANES BASED ON NEW HYDRO - DYNAMIC REDUCTION THEORY, by Paul Schroder; N.A.C.A. Technical Memo No. 621. IN CONSIDERING the take-off characteristics of a seaplane hull, the lifting forces due to the water displacement by the volume is negligible.
Report of the National Air Races by Side Slips’ Special Correspondent, with the annual and probably unnecessary apologies to Mr. Ring Lardner.
ROBERT R. OSBORN
DEAR EDITOR: Well Ed you has probably seen by the papers already how I an my assistants has put over another successful Nat’l Air R’ces. Maybe I hasn’t been mentioned so often in the New York papers on account I always giving most of the credit to my assistants when interviewed an this might be a good opportunity for me to thank Mr. Cliff Henderson an Mr. Grieve an the rest for there efforts on behalf of the industry.