Automobile Shop Repairs
Replacing Automobile Piston-Rings
WHEN replacing the piston in the cylinder of a gasoline engine, after it has been taken apart, it is usually difficult to get the compressionrings to enter the bore because they have to be sprung shut one at a time in order to slide in. A new device has been designed to obviate this difficulty. It is formed of two flexible steel cables connected by a series of steel bars, the last bar on one end and several bars on the other end being fitted with lugs.
The method of using the device is to wrap it around the rings of the piston, after which a small clamp is placed on the proper lugs and screwed up until the rings have closed tightly around the piston. When the piston is slipped into the cylinder the contrivance is pushed off the rings as they enter the cylinder in succession.—E. G. INGRAM.
Steam as a Carbon Remover
FOR a number of years certain tractor manufacturers have been able to use kerosene as a fuel by injecting a small amount of water in it. The water flashed into steam from the heat of the explosion and reduced carbon deposits that would otherwise form in the combustion chamber. A small steam vaporizer has been devised recently for use with gasoline automobile engines which makes the admission of steam into the firing-chamber an automatic process. The device is shown in accompanying-illustration. The watercontainer A carries a float B and a float-regulated-water-admission valve C, and is designed to be clamped around the exhaust-manifold. The cover contains a chamber D into which water passes through hole E from the waterjacket around the cylinder-head. Hole E is connected with the water jacket by a pipe and unions. There is sufficient pressure due to head of water in the radiator to force the water through the pipe to E, then up through the filter to the orifice controlled by the float-valve C. The steam generated in chamber A by the heat of the exhaust-pipe is drawn out through pipe G, which communicates with the induction pipe above the carburetor.
A certain quantity of steam or water vapor is mixed with each ingoing charge and the engine not only develops more power, owing to an increase of the mean effective pressure of the explosion, but the oxygen gas liberated by the breaking up of the steam keeps the engine clean by combining with excess unconsumed carbon. It is doubtful whether the small amount of steam drawn into the mixture can make any appreciable difference with the power developed, but it is a known fact that introducing water vapor in proper quantities will tend to reduce liability of carbon deposit in the combustion CHAMBER.-VICTOR W. PAGÉ.
A Gasoline Tank Gage
A GASOLINE tank gage may be made as follows: Obtain a brass rod of about 3/16-in. diameter, 2 ins. longer than the tank is deep, a cork about ins. in diameter and ^ in. thick; also a strip of copper in. wide, about 1/16 in. thick and as long as the tank is deep. To make the holes in the cork-float, obtain an iron rod and a piece of strap-iron of the right size, heat them and press into the cork. Repeat this operation until the holes are burned through the cork.
Put one end of the copper strip in a vise and with a pair of pliers give it one complete turn. See that the float slides freely upon it. Place the float on the brass rod and flatten the ends of the rod for a distance of 1 in. and drill holes for copper or brass wire to be soldered to each end of the copper spiral for bearings and pointer. Assemble as shown in the illustration. Make a hole in the filler-cap to accommodate the pointer and solder the upper end of the brass rod to the cap.
The float should be given two coats of shellac. Make a zero mark on the filler cap where the pointer stands, when the tank is empty. Pour in one gallon of gasoline, put the gage in place and mark a figure 1 where the pointer stands, and so on until the tank has been completely FILLED.-CLAUDE M. SESSIONS.
Lapping a Scored Automobile Engine Cylinder
SOMETIMES an automobile engine cylinder will become scored due to defective cooling or lubrication, or on account of dirt in the oil. This results in loss of power, because the compression in the cylinder is reduced by escaping gas. If the scratches are not too deep, they may be lapped out and the expense of re-boring the cylinder saved. A very simple yet effective lapping-tool is shown. A main spindle of mild steel carries a tapered expander-plug, which fits a corresponding taper in a castcopper lap. This has four grooves cut in it, two extending from the top nearly to the bottom, two from the bottom nearly to the top. These permit the lap to expand when it is forced down on the expander-plug by the clamp-nut. A driving-pin is inserted in the spindle, this turning the lap because it fits one of the slots.
The scored cylinder is clamped securely on the bed of a drill-press and the lap inserted in the bore after it has been covered thoroughly with abrasive material, usually fine emery and oil. The diameter of the lap is slightly less than that of the cylinder before it is expanded by the clamping-nut. It is turned to have a very smooth surface. In use, the drill-press is set in the back gears so the spindle will rotate slowly, while the lap is revolving. It is also raised up and down by the hand-feed lever. The lap may be expanded slightly after it has been turned and reciprocated for a time and fresh abrasive added. Care should be taken to clean all emery and oil out of the cylinder when the lapping process is completed. If the work is properly done, all the scratches will be eliminated and a smooth bore secured. Deep scratches, such as caused by a loose wristpin, can only be eliminated by re-boring the CYLINDER.-VICTOR W. PAGÉ.
A Handy Hook for the Automobilist
A HANDY and cheap attachment for an automobile-jack is an iron hook that can be made by any blacksmith. It should be just a little shorter than the jack, with one end bent to fit over the top of the lifting head and the other end formed into a hook large enough to hold an axle, and strong enough to lift the car. In this way, the machine can be easily raised in places where it is impossible to set up the jack in the usual manner, for lack of clearance. The hook will be found particularly valuable when the automobile gets stuck in the mud and
there is no pry available. In this situation there is never sufficient clearance to use the jack, but with the hook, the car can be raised far enough to get a board, a box or some dry dirt under IT.-E. F. AYERS.
Simple Cure for Misfiring at Low Engine Speeds
THE writer recently cured a case of misfiring at low engine speeds by a very simple expedient. The engine was a comparatively new one, and had not been run long enough to ascribe the trouble to wear in the inlet valve stemguides. All manifold joints were tight,
and there was no air leak around valve-caps or petcocks. The carburetor adjustment was altered without receiving any benefit. A good spark was obtained from both battery and magneto systems, and as the misfiring was as pronounced with one ignition system as
the other, it plainly was not the fault of the ignition group. The misfiring was not serious but annoying, especially when running the engine slowly on the direct-drive in traffic.
In removing the spark-plugs to experiment with various gaps between the electrodes, it was noticed that the plugs did not screw into the cap very deep and that there was a pocket in the valve-cap beneath the spark-plug, as shown at A in the accompanying illustration. As everything else had been tried without curing the trouble, the valve - chamber caps were tapped out with a pipe tap
so the plugs could be screwed in enough to eliminate the pocket entirely as shown at B, and the edgês of the tapped holes w'ere chamfered to make sure the plug would project into the large chamber in the valve-cap. After the parts had been replaced, and the carburetor restored to its original condition, all misfiring ceased.
The explanation is that at low speeds, owing to imperfect scavenging and low rate of inlet gas flow, some dead gas left from a previous explosion collected in the small pocket around the plugpoints; when the spark took place, the ignition function was erratic because of the poor gaseous mixture surrounding the plug-electrodes. Bringing the points further into the combustion chamber eliminated this condition, because the electrodes were swept by the fresh gas at every INTAKE-STROKE.---VICTOR W. PAGE.
One Geared Motor Serves Two Drives
THIS diagram illustrates a good method for making one geared motor serve two drives. Line up the two large gear-wheels No. i and No. 2, as shown in the diagram. Set the motor so that the motor-pinion falls between them. It must not engage both large gear-wheels at once. As shown here, the motor is driving machine No. 1. By simply turning the shifting-bolts (usually there is only one shifting-bolt on a motor), the power is quickly applied to gear-wheel No. 2 for driving machine No. 2.-N. G. NEAR.
A Pocket-Clip for Pencils
A CLIP for holding pencils and fountain-pens in the pocket can be made from a paper-fastener. One end of the fastener is straightened and wound tightly about the pen or pencil, while the other end lies flat in a lengthwise position.
Building an Oil Reservoir
ASIMPLE and useful outfit for the storage of oil or other liquids is shown in the illustration. A one-hundred-gallon range-boiler is shown at C; i K'-inch air-pipe is connected to the simple pump shown and to the top of the tank (the unions A and B are of the ground-faced kind so that the pipes can be disconnected and laid aside when not in use). The oil barrel G is rolled into place and blocked with pieces H and Hl, the bung removed and the one-inch pipe connected as shown. The valve E is closed, of course. By working the handpump the air in the tank will be removed and the oil will flow in to take its place. D is an ordinary water-gage. An enlarged view of the pump is shown in Fig. 2. It is made from an ordinary, bicycle pump. Note that the leather cup is reversed as at I. Two yi--inch check-valves are soldered over holes made in the pump body, since it is imperative that the valves be abso-
lutely airtight. The hard rubber composition-washers should be replaced with soft rubber ones. In using the pump the plunger should be forced right down to the BOTTOM.-JAMES E. NOBLE.
Emptying a Bottle
THE contents of a bottle may be emptied, drop by drop, if a match stick bent to form a figure 7 is inserted, by the long end, in the bottle, and held in place. The liquid then runs along the match stick, when the bottle is tilted, and drops off the end of the stick.