M. Louis PROAL’S Political Crime* the best volume of the Criminology Series, is a needful contribution to the study of sociology. Few people have any adequate conception of the amount of crime connected with politics. Still fewer appreciate the far reaching and deplorable consequences of that crime. The reason is plain. An idea altogether too prevalent is that in politics a course of conduct may be pursued that would be regarded as highly immoral and reprehensible in other forms of human activity. In the interest of the public welfare it is permissible to practice a code of ethics that differs in no wise from that practiced in war—a code that found its most perfect and odious exposition in Machiavelli’s Prince. M. Proal’s book is an energetic and scholarly protest against this view. u Craft and violence,” he says, “ may score ephemeral successes, but they do not assure the greatness and prosperity of a country. The successes achieved hy an immoral policy are not lasting ; sooner or later nations, like individuals, politicians just as private persons, are punished for the evil or rewarded for the good they do.” Again he says: “If a lengthy period be examined, one is struck in a general way by the fact that failure attends an immoral policy. A politician, face to face with a serious difficulty, thinks recourse to an unjust expedient of immediate utility the simplest mode of escape from it, but the future is not slow to teach him the drawbacks of injustice.” Never wTas there a time in our own history when it was more important that such a lesson be learned, not only by politicians but by philanthropists of the socialistic order, and scrupulously observed.
At the outset M. Proal exposes the falsity of the current notion that the philosophy invented to justify this form of crime originated with Machiavelli. “Politics,” he says, “did not await the advent of Machiavelli to become shifty, violent, and sanguinary. Statesmen did not need the lessons of the Italian writer to teach them to lie, to proscribe their adversaries, and confiscate their belongings. The desire to rule, the exercise of authority,” he adds, explaining the cause of political crime and exposing its kinship with war, “teach fraud and violence.” Even so great a philosopher as Plato and so enlightened a statesman as Canning approved Machiavellian principles. “ It seems to me,” wrote the Greek in his Politics, “ that our magistrates will often be obliged to have recourse to lying and deceit in the interest of their fellow-citizens, and we have declared elsewhere that a lie is useful when it is employed as a remedy—and rightly so».” Referring to the unjust laws promulgated against the Catholics under James I, the Englishman says, “ Unjust as these stipulations were, the safety of the state rendered them necessary.” It is only when such principles are found in the mouth of a terrorist like Marat that their infamous character is fully realized. “Before this supreme law,” he wrote, alluding to “the safety of the people,” and in justification of the crimes that he and his partisans committed, “ all other laws should be as naught. To save the country all means are good, all means are just, all means are meritorious.”
* Political Crime. By Louis Proal. New York : D. Appleton and Company. Pp. 335. Price, $1.50.
M. Proal’s exposition of the direful fruits of such a political philosophy is scholarly and complete. Of the eleven chapters in his book, nine of them are devoted to a citation of some of the more striking crimes of ancient and modern history, particularly that of France, committed to insure “ the safety of the people.” They are of great interest and value, including as they do Political Assassination and Tyrannicide, Anarchism, Political Hatreds, Political Hypocrisy, Political Spoliation, Corruption among Politicians, Electoral Corruption, The Corruption of Law and Justice by Politics, and The Corruption of Morals by Politics. The cumulative effect of this mass of facts is irresistible. They make clear, as nothing else can; how politics may poison the whole social fabric—how, indeed, it may produce effects wholly unexpected. “Bad political morals,”says M. Proal, “spread to the people; they accustom it to deceit, cruelty, and injustice, and they diminish its loathing for evil. The immorality of those who govern infects sooner or later those who are governed.” He tells us that “ the Terror rendered cruel even those who fought against it, and it left its mark upon the youth of the higher classes.” He tells us further that “ the triumph of might makes people lose confidence in right, and destroys their faith in justice.” Not only do immoral politics lead to cruelty and greed, but, as M. Proal shows by a number of examples, to intemperance, gluttony, and even sexual laxity. He shows, finally, that by “the creation of privileges” they produce changes in the structure of society. “ Undoing the work of God, who gave the same rights to all men,” he says, “they have created inequality in the matter of civil and political rights, they have altered the true mutual relations of men, and they have established inequality even in respect to justice.”
The only important lesson taught by this demoralization is not the necessity of a scrupulous observance of a rigid code of ethics in political action. Hardly less important is the lesson that all writers and public speakers should possess sound judgment. “ I believe,” says M. Proal, “ that disordered ideas produce moral disorder, that a false thesis may call forth an infinite number of bad actions, that a sophism is often more dangerous to society than a crime.” As judge of the Court of Appeal at Aix, before which political criminals had been tried, he had ample opportunity to confirm this view. Reprobation too severe can not, therefore, be visited upon such a writer as M. Renan, wTho says, “ It is better that a people should be immoral than that it should be fanatical.” Nor should approval ever be bestowed upon works in glorification of revolution or other forms of violence. They are text-books of political crime. “ The historian,” said Lamartine, who, with Thiers and Louis Blanc, had been guilty of the offense, “ who furnishes crime with an excuse and cruelty with a fallacious pretext, paves the way unawares for future indulgence toward the imitators of these crimes.” As to certain newspapers and speakers, with which the United States as well as France is cursed, M. Proal says that “like corrosive acids,” they “destroy all they touch,” and “like alcohol,” they “inflame the blood, agitate the nerves, sear the brain, and dry up the heart.” Until the truth with regard to the facts of history and the questions of the day is set forth scrupulously, it is needless to expect an end of political crime.
PROFESSOR Packard's elaborate Text-Book of Entomology * was prepared with the wants of both the student and teacher in mind, and the hook has grown in part out of the writer’s experience in class work. In instructing small classes in the anatomy and metamorphoses of insects, it was felt that the mere dissection and drawing of a few types comprising some of our common insects were not sufficient for broad, thorough work. Without depreciating the importance of laboratory study, it needed to be supplemented by frequent explanations or formal lectures, with collateral reading by the student in some general treatise in structural and developmental entomology. The present text has been prepared to serve this purpose, giving, of course, with much greater fullness and detail what was roughly outlined in the class work. The aim has been to afford a broad foundation for future more special research by any one who may want to carry on the study of some groups of insects, or to extend in any special direction our present knowledge of insect morphology and growth. The number of insects in orders, families, genera, and species (they forming about four fifths of the animal kingdom), their habits and transformations, and the variety of ways in which they affect human interests, are given as reasons why they have attracted more attention from students than any other classes of animals. They are represented as perhaps more complicated in structure than any other animals. Having defined their general position. Professor Packard describes the chief differences between them and their neighbors—the crustaceans, trilobites, spiders, and others. Their morphology and physiology are considered in respect to their external and internal anatomy, under which head all their parts are described with their several relations and functions. The second part of the book is devoted to the embryology of insects, and the third to their metamorphoses. Copious bibliographical lists are appended to each of the departments, arranged by dates so as to give an idea of the historical development of the subject. A full index completes the volume.
IN Dr. Oppenheim's book on The Development of the Child, the subject is treated in a philosophical spirit. The author makes a serious study of the factors that contribute
* A Text-Book of Entomology, including the Anatomy, Physiology, Embryology, and Metamorphoses of Insects. For Use in Agricultural and Technical Schools and Colleges, as well as by the Working Entomologist. By Alpheus S. Packard. New York : The Macmillan Company. Pp. 727. Price, $4.50.
t The Development of the Child. By Nathan Oppenheim. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 296. Price, $1.25.
to the child’s development and the formation of his character, and seeks to find how they may be most advantageously treated and cultivated so as to secure the best results. He makes much less account of heredity than do most authors—reducing it, in fact, to its lowest terms—and gives special predominance to the environment-and nutrition. “ There is not enough of conviction in the minds of parents and guardians,” he says, “ that the responsibility of their children’s acts, good and bad, rests upon their older shoulders; that the final outcome of their children’s lives depends almost entirely upon the influences, the nutrition, the environment which the authority of the parents and guardians provides.” He begins by pointing out and presenting the differences in the constitution of the child and the adult, so as to show “ that an infant’s development is not a rigidly immovable process, that it progresses slowly and irregularly, and that during its course the child is in so unstable a condition that no strain should be put upon his faculties.” The comparative importance of heredity and environment is next considered, with the result that we have already indicated. The methods of the primary school are sharply criticised, and the rule is prescribed that “ every subject should, in its claim for a place in the curriculum, be judged by its adaptability to the child’s growth,” and hints are offered toward a better method. Reasons are adduced and enforced with illustrations from children’s words, why religious instruction, as usually applied, is not adapted to the child’s mind and can hardly convey correct ideas. In a similar spirit the author discusses The Value of the Child as a Witness in Suits at Law ; The Development of the Child Criminal ; The Genius and the Defective ; and Institutional Life in the Development of the Child. In the final chapter, The Profession of Maternity, the importance is emphasized of making training for the duties of motherhood a predominant feature in the education of women.
The twelve essays constituting Prof. Josiah Royce's volume of Studies of Good and Evil,* though seemingly varied in topic and as to the occasions on which they were first presented, represent together what the author calls a type of post-Kantian idealism. Their appeal is to those readers to whom studies of more familiar issues in the light of philosophical considerations are more enlightening than fundamental metaphysical arguments. Believing that the student should be relatively independent as to the manner in which he reaches his conclusions and as regards the kind of insight he seeks to impart to his readers, Professor Royce
* Studies of Good and Evil. A Series of Essays upon Problems of Philosophy and of Life. By Josiah Royce. New York : D. Appleton and Company. Pp. 384. Price, $1.50.
hopes that his papers may serve to indicate in what sense the philosophical theses he has to maintain possess a genuinely individual character. They are all, directly or indirectly, contributions to the comprehension of the ethical aspects of the universe, and are of various relations to technical philosophical issues. Four of them are essays in literary and philosophical criticism ; one is directly concerned with the effect of the knowledge of good and evil upon the character of the individual man ; one is a contribution to the metaphysical problem of evil in its most general sense ; five, while dealing with metaphysical and psychological problems connected with the nature and relationships of our human type of consciousness, are somewhat more indirect contributions to the ethical interpretation of our place in the universe. One is a historical study of a concrete conflict between good and evil tendencies in early California life. The first paper, The Problem of Job, presents the author’s theory of evil. The second is a psychological study of a personal experience of John Bunyan. The third paper, on Tennyson and Pessimism, bears on a theory of the relation between good and evil ; and another general aspect of that relation is discussed in the fourth paper. These studies prepare the way for the metaphysical issue of the ethical interpretation of reality; and the problem of the general relation between natural law and the demands of ethics is stated in the fifth essay; while the sixth states the general case for an idealistic interpretation of the universe in its relations to self-consciousness. The question of what finite consciousness with all its burdens of good and evil may be and mean is treated in the seventh and eighth essays ; and the discussion of consciousness is continued in the ninth. The last three papers concern more special issues, and relate to Meister Eckhart, the German mystic of the thirteenth century ; the squatter riot of 1850 in Sacramento ; and the late French philosophical critic, Jean Marie Guyau.
Mr. MacEwarCs Essentials of Argumentation * is the outgrowth of a dozen years’ experience with classes in an agricultural col-
* The Essentials of Argumentation. By Elias J. MacEwan. Boston: D. C. Heath & Co. Pp. 412. Price, $1.12.
lege. The time for literary training being limited in such an institution, a course had to be provided that would be most helpful to students who had net time to study all the niceties of literary expression, and could, at best, master only the elementary principles of rhetoric and make themselves familiar, in a general way, with the ordinary forms of prose composition. Their work would require proficiency in description, clear and sound reasoning, and the cogent presentation of what they would want others to accept as true. Adapting his course to this condition, the author made it largely one in argumentation, with the result of a more rapid development of the student’s power of reflection and greater facility and accuracy of expression. The present book follows the plan of the course thus described. While adapting his work largely to the practical questions of the day, the author has inserted model examples of argument from every source, whether new or old, affording illustrations that would illustrate. Famous passages from Webster and Burke, from Shakespeare’s oratory, and from Huxley’s addresses are accompanied by minute analyses of their parts, qualities, and points ; and a list of more than two hundred propositions for argument or debate, and a glossary of terms, are given.
La Industria Agricola is a new agricultural paper started at Caracas, Venezuela, with Señor Guillermo Delgado Palacios as editor. Of the thirty-two pages of the first number six are devoted to the exposition of the purposes of the magazine and the bearing of science on agriculture; five to the agricultural bureaus and societies of Venezuela; ten to the agricultural staples of the country, wheat, sugar cane, and corn ; two to agricultural items from the United States ; and the rest to industrial novelties and miscellaneous articles.
L'Intermédiaire des Biologistes (The Biologists’ Intermediary) is a useful semimonthly international organ of zoology, botany, physiology, and psychology, published in Paris under the editorial direction of MM. Alfred Binet and Victor Henri, with numerous colaborers of equal scientific standing, which has just completed its first year. The number before us has as its leading original articles papers on the sexuality of aphides,
by E. G. Balbini, and on the Colorability of Living Protoplasm, by F. Henneguy; and these are followed by two pages seeking answers from correspondents, seven pages of answers to previous questions—the notes and query feature being one of the most prominent of the publication—and classified summaries of the biological contents of periodicals. Price, 12 francs ($2.50) a year.
The Philosophy of the Humanities includes three addresses delivered on separate occasions and to different bodies by Thomas Fitzhugh, professor of Latin in the University of Texas. They discuss the evolution of classic culture and its pedagogic treatment, and inquire into the philosophic basis of the humanities. The subjects are The Evolution of Culture, The Pedagogic Aspect of Culture Evolution ; Organization of the Latin Humanities in College, and Organization of the Latin Humanities in Secondary Education. The author is a sturdy advocate of the study of Latin. (University of Chicago press.)
A Bibliography and Index of North American Geology, Palaeontology, and Mineralogy for 1892 and 1893, compiled by Fred Boughton Weeks, and constituting Bulletin No. 130 of the United States Geological Survey, contains 1,121 titles. The index is complete and elaborate, classified by States and main subjects, and arranged alphabetically throughout. A list of publications examined is appended.
In the comparative study of L'Evolution régressive en Biologie et en Sociologie (Regressive Evolution in Biology and Sociology), the ground is taken by the authors (MM. Jean Demoor, Jean Massart, and Emile Vandervelde) that the word evolution does not in itself imply either progression or regression, but designates all transformations, whether favorable or unfavorable, and they have applied themselves to the study of the latter kind. They have conducted the results of their several special researches in the biological and social fields so as to show how the regressive feature is manifested in both, and that every transformation involves a loss as well as a gain ; that “ regression is not an accident of evolution, but is the in-'verse of progressive evolution, the necessary complement of all transformation, organic or social.” When we study any transformation whatever we may hit upon, taking variations as they come, we find that as a consequence of it some parts of the structure become useless, and their gradual elimination ensues, as in the interest of the organization itself, considered as a whole. The working of this principle is considered in its various aspects in the worlds of organic life and society. (Paris : Félix Alcan, Bibliothèque Scientifique Internationale. )
The Bibliography of the Anthropology of Peru, published by George A. Dorsey in the Anthropological Series of the Papers of the Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, shows that the list of books and papers relating to the subject is a very considerable one and would of itself furnish a respectable library ; yet the compiler does not pretend that it is exhaustive. He has only done his best with the material accessible to him. His aim has been, so far as possible, to cover the whole ground, and to include such works from the earliest times down to the present day as treat of the modern Indians and of the Peruvians of ancient times, and to include all known editions of the early Spanish authorities. Interest and value are added to his work by the short biographical sketches he furnishes of about fifty of the more impor-
Adams, C. J. The Matterhorn Head and other Poems. Roseville, Staten Island, New York : The Bureau of Biophilism. Pp. 20.
Agricultural Experiment Stations. Bulletins and Reports. Michigan State Agricultural College: Elementary Science Series. No. 1. Beans and Peas before and after Sprouting; No. 2. Wheat and Buckwheat, ditto; Seeds of Clover and Timothy, ditto ; Observations on the Leaves of Clovers'at Different Times of the Day. All by W. J. Beal. Pp. 8 each; Report of the Botanical Department of Michigan State Agricultural College. By W. J. Beal. Pp. 24; Michigan Monthly Bureau of Vital Statistics, May, 1898. Pp. 20,—New Jersey: No. 129. Asparagus Rust. Pp. 20.—New York: Popular Editions of No. 139. Plant Lice; No. 140. Wood Ashes not an Apple-Scab Preventive; No. 141. Some Results in Stock Feeding. Pp. 6 each ; Bulletin No. 142. Director’s Report for 1897. Pp. 24.—United States Department of Agriculture: Farmer’s Bulletin No. 74. Milk as Food. Pp. 40; Miscellaneous No. 15. Changes in the Rates of Charge of Railway and other Transportation Services. By H. C. Newcomb. Pp. 80.—West Virginia : No. 52. Strawberries. By L. C. Corbett. Pp. 24.
American Catholic Historical Society of Philadelphia. Record. Quarterly. Vol. IX. No. 2. June, 1898. Pp. 180. 50 cents; $2 a year.
Aveling, Eleanor Marx. History of the Commune of 1871. Translated from the French of Lissagaray. New York: International Publishing Company, 23 Duane Street. Pp. 500.
tant authors of the early Spanish times. Mr. Dorsey hopes to follow this work with an index by subjects and topics.
The eleventh volume of the Annals of the Argentine Meteorological Office (Anales de la Oficina Meteorológica Argentina), Walter G. Davis, director, covers the observations of the year 1893. It includes elaborate tables similar to those which have characterized previous volumes of the Anales, with climatic details, at the stations of San Jorge (Cordoba), Isla de los Estados, Chos-Malal, Paramillo de Uspallata, on Potro Muerto ; with, in addition, summaries of monthly observations from October, 1895, till December, 1896, at Isla de los Estados, and from May till August, 1896, at Chos-Malal. Twelve new stations were established during the year covered by the report. Voluntary observations of the principal meteorological elements were received from thirty-six points, and of rain from seventy-three. Reports of observations made six times a day were received from Concepcion, Paraguay. Stations have been established outside of the republic, near its frontiers, in cases where suitable points could not be found in the same latitudes within the national territory, whereby important data have been secured that would otherwise have been missed.
Baldwin, J. M. The Story of the Mind. (Library of Useful Stories.) New York: D. Appleton and Company. Pp. 236. 40 cents.
Barnes, C. R. Plant Life, considered with Special Reference to Form and Function. New York : Henry Holt & Co. Pp. 478. $1.12.
Bulletins, Reports, and Proceedings. American Museum of Natural History: Memoirs, Anthropological. The Jesup North Pacific Expedition. Facial Paintings of the Indians of North British Columbia. By Franz Boas. Pp. 24, with 5 plates.—Baltimore Medical College: Annual Announcement and Catalogue, 1898-’99. Pp. 32.— Indiana: Report on Geology and Mineral Resources, 1897. Pp. 1197.—Johns Hopkins University: General Statements as to the Courses of Instruction. Pp. 20.—Minnesota : Botanical Studies. Conway MacMillan, State Botanist.. Second Series. Part I. Pp. 68.—Museum of Comparative Zoölogy at Harvard College: The Geological History of the Isthmus of Panama and Portions of Costa Rica. By Robert T. Hill. Pp. 140, with 13 plates.—Torrey Botanical Club: Bulletin. July, 1898. L. M. Underwood, Editor. Pp. 60. $2 a year.—Yale University Observatory: Report of the Managers for 1897-’98. Pp. 22.—United States Department of Labor: Bulletin. July, 189S.
Economic Aspects of the Liquor Problem and other Subjects. Pp. 156.—United States Commissioner of Education : Report for 1896-’97. Pp. 1136,—University Geological Survey of Kansas : Vol. IV. Paleontology. Pp. 594, with plates.
Carus-Wilson, C. A. Electro-Dynamics. The Direct-Current Motor. New York: Longmans, Green & Co. Pp. 298. $1.75.
Congdon, E. A. A Brief Course in Qualitative Analysis. New York: Henry Holt & Co. Pp. G2. 60 cents.
Detmer, Dr. W., and Moor, S. A. Practical Plant Physiology. London: Swan, Sonnen-
schein & Co. New York : The Macmillan Company. Pp. 535. $3.
Groos, Karl. The Play of Animals. Translated, with the author’s co-operation, by Elizabeth L. Baldwin. With a Preface and Appendix by J. Mark Baldwin. New York: D. Appleton and Company. Pp. 341. $1.75.
Harris, Edith T. The Story of Rob Roy, by Sir Walter Scott, condensed for Home and School Reading. (Appletons’ Home-Reading Books.) New York : D. Appleton and Company. Pp. 306. 60 cents.
Keyser, L. S. News from the Birds. (Appletons’ Home-Reading Books.) New York: D. Appleton and Company. Pp. 229.
Mills, Wesley. The Nature and Development of Animal Intelligence. New York: The Macmillan Company. Pp. 307. $2.
Mutual Boiler Insurance Company, Boston. Cost of Boiler-Room Labor. Bad Shoveling. Pp. 201.—Comparative Steam-making Values of Coals used in the Northeastern States. By R. S. Hale. Pp. 9.—Tests of Steam-pipe and Boiler Coverings. By C. L. Norton.
Overton, Frank. Applied Physiology, including the Effects of Alcohol and Narcotics. Primary Grade. -Pp. 128.—Intermediate. Pp. 188.— Advanced. Pp. 432. American Book Company.
Pyle, Howard. The Divinity of Labor. (Commencement Address.) Wilmington, Del. Pp. 12.
Redway, Jacques W., and Hinman, Russell. Natural Advanced Geography. American Book Company. Pp. 160.
Reprints. Lyons, Florence M.: A Contribution to the Life History of Euphorbia Corollata. Pp. 8, with plates.—Hester, C. A., M. D.: The Pathology of Uraemic Intoxications. Pp. 20 — Mercer, H. C. : A New Investigation cf Man’s Antiquity at Trenton. Pp. 20.—Merck’s Digest: No. 16. Tannalbin (astringent). Pp. 8; No. 18. Aqua Levico (alterant tonic). Pp. 4; No. 21. Ichthalbin (alterant, antiphlogistic, and assimilative). Pp. 8. Merck & Co., New York.—Rotch, A. L.: The International Aeronautic Conferences. Pp. 8.—Silenker, M. A., M. D.: Clinical Observations of a New Antipyretic. Pp. 4,—Smith, W. R. : A Contribution to the Life History of the Pontederiaceæ. Pp. 16, with plates.—Wadsworth, M. E.: Zirkelite. P. 1; The Elective System in Engineering Colleges. Pp. 39; Mineral Plates in Converging Polarized Light with the Petrological Microscope. Pp. 8; The Elective System in Technological Schools. Pp. 14; Some Statistics of Engineering Education. Pp. 24; The Michigan College or Mines. Pp. 16; The Origin and Mode of Occurrence of the Lake Superior Copper Deposits. Pp. 28.
Ripley, F. H., and Tapper, Thomas. A Short Course in Natural Music. Book I. Elementary. American Book Company. Pp. 144. 35 cents.
Troeger, J. N. Harold’s Rambles. (Appletons’ Home-Reading Books. Nature Study Readers.) New York: D. Appleton and Company. Pp. 155. 40 cents.